Kiln bricks, also known as fire bricks, are specially designed building materials that are used to line and insulate high-temperature kilns, furnaces, and other types of heat processing equipment. The bricks are primarily made from a mixture of clay and other materials that have been formed into a solid dense block through a process known as firing.
The exact composition of kiln bricks can vary depending on the manufacturer and the intended application of the brick. However, most fire bricks are made from a mixture of clay, kaolin, and other materials like grog, sawdust, and straw. These materials are mixed together with water and shaped into rectangular blocks using molds or extrusion machines. The mixture is then dried and fired at high temperatures in a kiln to create a dense, durable brick that can withstand extreme temperature changes.
One of the primary components of kiln bricks is clay, a naturally occurring material that is composed of aluminum silicates and other minerals. The type of clay used in fire bricks can vary depending on factors such as the temperature range of the kiln, the amount of mechanical stress the bricks will be subjected to, and the desired properties of the finished product. For example, high-alumina clay bricks are typically used in high-temperature kilns because they can withstand temperatures up to 1800°C (3272°F). Other types of clay that may be used in kiln brick manufacturing include fire clay, kaolin clay, and ball clay.
In addition to clay, kiln bricks may also be made with other materials like grog, which is a hard, porous material that is formed by crushing fired clay. Grog is often added to kiln brick mixtures to improve their strength and durability, as well as to help them resist thermal shock. Sawdust and straw are sometimes used in the manufacturing process as well, as they can help to reduce cracking and warping during firing.
Overall, the composition of kiln bricks is carefully designed to meet the specific needs of a wide range of industrial applications. By using specialized materials like clay, grog, and other additives, manufacturers are able to produce fire bricks that can withstand extreme temperatures, resist thermal shock, and provide excellent insulation properties. These qualities have made kiln bricks an essential component in many different industries, from ceramics and glassmaking to metalworking and chemical processing.